If you are interested in the audio version of the text, follow this link Al Qadaa wal Qadar Introduction (Understand-Islam.net).
Al-Qadaa’ wal Qadar in Brief
Dr. Saleh As-Saleh
Based on the book “The Salaf’s Understanding of Al-Qadaa’ wal Qadar“
(Allah’s General Pre-Decrees and Their Particular Executions)
Understand-Islam.net Published: 2006
Al-Qadar encompasses four themes:
1) Allah’s Knowledge (al-’ilm),
2) Allah’s Writing (al-kitabah),
3) Allah’s Will (al-mashee’ah, and
4) Allah’s Creation (al-khalq).
[The second two] . . . of these themes is discussed below.
3) Al-Mashee’ah (The will of Allah)
It is the belief that Allah willed everything that goes on in this universe. His will and His preordaining power effectively covers everything. Whatever He wills, will occur, and whatever He does not will, will not take place. Example, Allah says:
If Allah willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you. Qur’an 5:48
The will of Allah (Al-mashee’ah) can be Kawniyyah (universal) or Shar’iyyah (legal or judicial). Al-mashee’ah al-kawniyyah means that whatever Allah permitted to exist [kuffr (unbelief), belief, obedience, and disobedience, etc.] is pertinent to his mashee’ah, whether He loves it or not. This is also called al-iradah al-kawniyyah. Therefore, Allah may decree, as necessitated by His wisdom, to pass things which He does not love and is not pleased with.
And He likes not disobedience for His slaves. Qur’an: 39, 7
It is obvious from this verse that Allah does not like kuffr, yet it exists by His will, in harmony with His wisdom.
On the other hand, the judicial will is pertinent to Allah’s legislation (Sharee’ah). Hence, it is related to what Allah loves and likes, whether it takes place or not. It is also known as al-iradah ash-shar’iyyah. The acts of obedience from the angels, prophets, and the believers, when they take place, are loved by Allah and are passed by His universal will. However, it is not necessarily that His commands are always executed.
4) Al-Khalq (The Creation)
Allah is the sole Creator of everything, including man’s deeds. No single atom or higher, static or in motion, but Allah has created it. Nothing that takes place in this world except that Allah has created it (including evil):
Verily Allah is the Creator of everything, and He is the Wakil (Disposer of Affairs, Trustee, etc.) over all things. Qur’an 39: 62
Write one benefit you gained from this week’s reading. And here are several questions to further explore in your journal.
- Name second two themes that Al-Qadar emcompasses.
- What is al-mashee’ah?
- What is al-khalq?
- Give two examples of Allah’s will.
- How is the universal will different from the judicial will?
- What is the proof that Allah is the sole creator?